INTRODUCTION TO COSMOLOGY
- Scheda dell'insegnamento
- Obiettivi formativi
- Metodi didattici
- Verifica dell'apprendimento
- Altre informazioni
The course aims at providing the basics of modern cosmology at an introductory level. After course completion, students will be able to strength their knowledge on more advanced courses and scientific literature. Special care will be given to develop those critical skills aimed at getting a deeper understanding of particularly interesting topics covered by the course.
The course does not require prior knowledge in astronomy and astrophysics, nor in general relativity. Still, preventive attendance of Astrophysics I course is recommended. The student must posses the basics, at the undergraduate degree level, in mechanics, Newtonian theory of gravitation, termodinamca, statistical mechanics, atomic physics, elementary particle physics, radiative phenomena.
1 FUNDAMENTAL OBSERVATIONS
1.1 The darkness of the night sky
1.2 Isotropy and homogeneity
1.3 Hubble Law
1.4 Types of particles
1.5 The cosmic micro-wave background
2 THE EINSTEIN THEORY OF GRAVITATION
2.1 Equivalence Principle
2.2 Curvature of space-time
2.3 Robertson-Walker metric
2.4 Proper distance and comoving quantities
2.5 Introduction to theoretical formulation of general relativity
3 COSMIC DYNAMICS
3.1 The equation of Friedmann
3.2 The acceleration equation and the equation of the fluids
3.3 Equations of state in cosmology
3.4 The cosmological constant Λ
4 SOLUTIONS OF FRIEDMANN EQUATION
4.1 Evolution of the energy density
4.2 Universes of pure curvature
4.3 Spatially flat Universes with single component
4.4 Matter dominated Universes
4.5 Radiation dominated Universes
4.6 Λ-dominated Universes
4.7 Universes with matter + curvature
4.8 Universes with matter + Λ
4.9 Universes with matter + curvature + Λ
4.10 Universes with radiation + material
4.11 The "concordance model"
5 MEASURING THE COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
5.1 The "search for two numbers"
5.2 The luminosity distance
5.3 The angular distance
5.4 Standard candles and the Hubble constant
5.5 Standard candles and the accelerated expansion of the Universe
6 DARK MATTER
6.1 Visible Matter
6.2 Dark matter in galaxies
6.3 Dark matter in galaxy clusters
6.4 Gravitational Lensing
6.5 Hypothesis about the nature of the dark matter
7 THE COSMIC MICRO-WAVE BACKGROUND
7.1 Observations of the CMB
7.2 Recombination and decoupling
7.3 The physics of recombination
7.4 Temperature fluctuations
7.5 Kinetic theory of fluctuations
7.6 Origin of fluctuations and determination of the cosmological parameters
8 THE PRIMORDIAL UNIVERSE
8.1 Spontaneous symmetry breaking
8.2 The era of phase transitions
8.3 The era of hadrons
8.4 The era of leptons: the neutrino cosmic background
8.5 Primordial nucleosynthesis
8.5.3 Primordial metals
8.6 The baryon-antibaryon asymmetry
9.1 The flatness problem
9.2 The horizon problem
9.3 The problem of magnetic monopoles
9.4 The inflationary solution
9.5 The inflationary Universe
Lectures with exercises done in class. Depending on events in the calendar, students are invited to attend local seminars and conferences of relevant themes.
Oral examination with short monothematic advanced research on a topic agreed with the student.
The course is based on the textbook “Introduction to Cosmology” by B. Ryden, and on notes and other material provided by the teacher.
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