SOLID STATE PHYSICS
- Scheda dell'insegnamento
- Obiettivi formativi
- Metodi didattici
- Verifica dell'apprendimento
- Altre informazioni
The course aims to impart the first elements of the modern systematic theory of crystalline solids, with an emphasis on electronic and transport properties.
Quantum physics, thermodynamics and mechanics of many-body systems, statistical physics, physics of atoms and molecules
Classical Drude theory for the conductivity of metals. Fermi-Dirac distribution and Drude-Sommerfeld theory of metals.
Crystals and crystal lattices. Bravais lattices, with and without polyatomic base, important examples. Reciprocal lattice of a Bravais lattice, important examples. Miller indices for the faces of a crystal. Elements of the theory of X-ray diffraction for the determination of the crystal structure. Structural factors and form factors for lattices with a polyatomic base.
Electronic energy bands in periodic potentials: Bloch's theorem, Fermi surface, density of states and van Hove singularities. Model of quasi-free electrons and resulting bands of electronic energy. Tight-binding method for the determination of electronic energy bands.
Semi-classical model for the electrodynamics of solids; distinction between metals, semi-metals, semi-conductors and insulators. Semiclassical theory for the conductivity of metals.
Landau levels for electrons in a uniform magnetic field; the de Haas - van Alphen effect and the measurement of the Fermi surface of metals.
Elementary theory of the interaction between electrons in a solid; the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations, electronic correlations, electrostatic screening, Thomas-Fermi and Lindhard theories for electronic screening. Hints on the Landau theory for the Fermi liquids and on the Mott transition.
Classification of solids (crystalline). Calculation of crystal binding energies.
Classical theory and quantum theory of lattice vibrations, specific heat of crystals (insulators) and Debye-Einstein theory for the specific heat of solids. Anharmonic effects in crystals.
Introduction to the dielectric properties of insulating solids and to the optical properties of solids.
General introduction on semi-conductors, statistics of carriers (electrons and holes), conductivity, doping, energy levels of impurities, conductivity from impurities. Doped semi-conductors, theory of the p-n junction.
Diamagnetism and paramagnetism in solids: insulators and metals. Interaction between electrons and the magnetic structure of solids (magnetic), the Heisenberg model for the exchange interaction between elementary spin magnetic moments. Ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism.
Introduction to superconductivity: phenomenology, Meissner effect, London equation. The problem of Cooper pairs, elements of the BCS microscopic theory. The phenomenological theory of Ginzburg-Landau, type I and II superconductors, Josephson effects and theory of the Josephson junction.
Course holder's personal or remote lectures.
Final oral exam, or written and oral (as chosen by the student).
N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin, Solid-State Physics (Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia 1976)
C. Kittel, Introduzione alla Fisica dello Stato Solido (Casa Editrice Ambrosiana 2008) [also: C. Kittel, "Quantum Theory of Solids"]
Some course holder's own lecture notes will be also used and photocopies/scans distributed to the students.
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