- Scheda dell'insegnamento
- Obiettivi formativi
- Metodi didattici
- Verifica dell'apprendimento
- Altre informazioni
The module intends to illustrate the phenomena of natural radioactivity, the dosimetry of ionizing radiation, the environmental phenomena and to develop the concept of environmental electromagnetic fields, their origin and measurement, the topics of acoustics and measuring methodologies in field in the environment.
The student must acquire the ability to understand how the natural and artificial physical agents act in the environment, how to perform the measurements of their parameters, to compare the measured values with the expected ones as defined in the existing rules and to describe the resulting effects.
The fundamentals of mathematical analysis, structure of matter and electromagnetism should be owned by students.
1) Ionizing radiation and radioactivity in the environment.
Outlines of the structure of atoms and matter.
Description of corpuscular radiations. Alpha and beta radiations and protons. Their interaction with matter, bremsstrahlung and ionization.
Description of electromagnetic radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. Their interactions with matter, Compton scattering, photoelectric effect and pair production.
Principles of detection. IR Instrumentation. Gas detectors, Geiger, proportional counters, ionization chambers. Scintillation detectors, organic and inorganic scintillators, solid state detectors. Gamma rays spectrometry instruments and personal dosimetry devices.
Dosimetry and radiation dose, activities, exposure, kerma. Effective dose, absorbed dose. Dose equivalent. Principle of electronic balance.
Biological effects of ionization radiations, deterministic and stochastic effects. Radiation protection, contamination and external irradiation. The three principles of radioprotection.
Natural radioactivity, cosmogenic radionuclides, radioactive chains, decays, transitional and secular equilibrium.
Radon. Origin, properties and measurement methodologies.
Sanitary, civil and industrial radioactive sources and radiogenic machines.
National regulations of natural radioactivity and radiation protection.
The physical surveillance of radiation protection, the task of the qualified expert.
Radioactive waste, characteristics, classification and their management.
2) Non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields in the environment.
The high frequency electromagnetic fields: reactive field, radiative field, Fresnel zone, Fraunhofer zone, approximation of plane wave. Antennas
Interaction of radio frequency electromagnetic fields and microwaves with living matter, biological effects of NIR. Thermal and non-thermal effects. NIR dosimetry, SAR and dosimetric quantities, basic restrictions.
The regulatory framework in non-ionizing radiation, reference levels, environmental dosimetric quantities.
High frequency environmental sources, transmission systems, modulation, multiple access methods, AM and FM radio. Analogue and digital tv broadcasting equipment. Radio link. Radar.
Propagation of electromagnetic wave transmission purposes. Ground waves, spatial direct and reflected waves.
Cellular phone networks. Transmission systems GSM, DCS, UMTS and LTE.
Electromagnetic impact analysis produced in the surrounding territory.
Wi-Fi and Wi-Max, Hiperlan
Sanitary, industrial and civil electromagnetic field sources.
Electromagnetic field measuring instruments and methods of measurement. Narrowband and broadband measurements. Spectrum analyzers.
50 Hz electromagnetic field, high voltage overhead and underground power lines, legislation, methods of measurement and instrumentation. Evaluation methods of electromagnetic field produced in the territory.
Physical phenomena and physical quantities. Sound, sound pressure, sound intensity and power. Noise levels: the decibel.
Acoustic quantities: equivalent level, SEL, spectral analysis, spectral bands, acoustic reception, sound sensation. Equal-loudness chart and weighing factors. Indices for the determination of the noise. Pink and white noise. Sonograms.
The propagation of sound and noise barriers.
Instrumentation for measuring noise: sound level meters and microphones. Free field and diffuse field.
Regulatory framework of environmental acoustics. Limit quantities to be used, methods of measurement in the environment and in the indoor space. Acoustic differential, emission and immission environmental limits. Modeling of noise impact assessments.
The module provides lectures including examples and exercises aimed at a more complete understanding of the presented material.
Verification of learning is performed with an oral test that will verify the student's preparation for at least one topic for each of the three main themes of the program (IR, NIR and acoustic).
Given the variety of topics covered and the difficulty in finding appropriate texts, the course is based on the materials prepared by the teacher, which are projected during the lessons and distributed to students. On request, a specific bibliography concerning technical and legal aspects to deepen what seen in the lessons can be made available.
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